In February 2012, the Summit of ECOWAS Heads of States and Government approved the revised ECOWAS Master Plan for the Generation and Transmission of Electric Power which identifies the Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea (CLSG) Interconnection Project as one of the five (5) priority projects of the West African Power Pool (WAPP) for the West African Sub-Region.
The objective of the WAPP is to establish a regional electricity market in West Africa through the appropriate development and implementation of key infrastructures so that all ECOWAS member states are given access to economic energy resources.
In order to accelerate the implementation of the CLSG interconnection project, WAPP uses a Special Purpose Companies as a vehicle of achieving this objective. Accordingly, the four countries have duly signed and ratified an International Treaty establishing a Regional Transmission Company (RTC) known as TRANSCO CLSG with the mandate to finance, construct, own, operate and further develop the CLSG transmission interconnection line.. TRANSCO CLSG is fully established and has been operational since September 5, 2014 following the appointment of its General Manager and his subsequent assumption into office at its Headquarters in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.
When the CLSG Interconnection Project is realized, it will interlink the completed WAPP Coastal Transmission Backbone Interconnection Project and the proposed (on-going) OMVG/OMVS Power System Development Projects which are part of the WAPP Priority Projects. It is expected that the on-going Inter-zonal Transmission Hub and the North Core Transmission Projects when completed, will connect the existing robust 330kV transmission corridor in the sub-region to close the ring of the proposed WAPP High Voltage Grid mesh.
The project is being implemented in four (4) Countries:
There are two main infrastructures to be built within the framework of the project:
Four main 225 kV high voltage Transmission Lines (TL):
The total length of the high voltage TL is approximately 1 349 km.
The expected power to be transmitted when the two (2) circuits will be fully operational is 290 MW.
Within the framework of the CLSG project, eleven (11) Substations (SS) will be constructed and one existing SS (Man) will be extended. The locations are detailed in the table below:
|Location of SS||Country||Type||Coordinate XY (UTM WGS84)|
|MAN||COTE D’IVOIRE||Existing / To be extended||( 663 340 ; 817 470 )|
|YEKEPA||LIBERIA||225/33 kV – 40 MVA||( 536 900 ; 817 620 )|
|BUCHANAN||225/33 kV – 40 MVA||( 390 327 ; 655 379 )|
|MONROVIA||225/66 kV – 70 MVA||( 317 283 ; 718 271 )|
|MANO||225/33 kV – 40 MVA||( 246 839 ; 774 887 )|
|KENEMA||SIERRA LEONE||225/33 kV – 40 MVA||( 260 939 ; 861 948 )|
|BIKONGOR||225/33 kV – 40 MVA||( 271 143 ; 950 827 )|
|BUMBANA||225/161 kV – 70 MVA||( 196 257 ; 999 526 )|
|YIBEN||225/33 kV – 40 MVA||(196 649 ; 1 039 812 )|
|KIMAKWIE||225/33 kV – 40 MVA||( 803 361 ; 1 052 918 )|
|LINSAN||GUINEA||225/33 kV – 2x15 MVA||( 779 234 ; 1 138 328 )|
|NZEREKORE||225/33 kV – 40 MVA||( 525579 ; 856 028 )|
An OPGW Network and a SCADA system will be implemented to facilitate the operation of the interconnection. This SCADA system will be located in Regional Control Centre (RCC) in Linsan (Guinea) and will use modern data processing systems providing a safe, reliable and optimal operation of the TRANSCO CLSG Transmission.
We present below the project components per country:
|COUNTRY||Km of TL (Total = 1 304 km)||Number of SS (Total =12)|
|COTE d’ IVOIRE||112 km||1|
|SIERRA LEONE||529 km||5|
The Map below shows the line routing of the transmission line:
Map with Line route and Substations locations
ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL SAFEGUARDS ASPECTS
1.Political, Legislative and Institutional Framework of the environmental and social aspects
1.1 Political and Legislative Framework
The Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) for the project was prepared in accordance with the Environmental Impact Assessment Guide in ECOWAS related to the energy sector; the regulation of Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea and the requirements of the funding institutions of the project: AfDB, EIB, KfW and the World Bank.
1.2 Institutional Framework
The institutional framework of the project on environmental and social issues includes environmental protection agencies and other institutions.
1.2.1. Environment Protection Agencies (EPA)
Their mission and attribution:
The jurisdiction of these agencies in this project includes:
These are the agencies that deliver the Environmental Permit or Environmental Compliance Certificate.
In Sierra Leone, the EPA is known as SL_EPA; in Liberia EPA; in Guinée, the ‘Bureau d’Études et d’Évaluation Environnementale (BGEEE)’ and in CI, the ‘Agence Nationale de l’Environnement’
1.2.2. Other Institutions
Within the framework of the implementation of the interconnection project Côte d'Ivoire-Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea, our objective ofthe environmental and social safeguards is to prevent and minimize in the best ways possible the environmental and social impacts of the project on people located in the corridor of the high voltage 225 kV line of about 1,349 km and the environments of the 4 countries alike.
We envisage to apply social safeguards standards-based on the institutional and regulatory principles of the CLSG countries and the international best practices as laid out by our donors namely the World Bank, EIB, AfDB and KFW.
TRANSCO CLSG, through its environmental and social safeguard policy, commits:
Summary of Impacts and Mitigation Measures and Monitoring
|Project Activity||Potential Impacts||Location||Proposed Mitigation||Net Effects||Monitoring|
|Line route survey & Design stage||Impact on potential sensitive ecological and inhabited area||Entire RoW||Adequate selection of RoW by avoiding these areas with detailed line route survey during the design stage||Negligible||Monitoring and Identifying the potential sensitive ecological or inhabited areas located along the RoW|
|During the entire project||Loss of crops||Almost entire RoW & access tracks||Prompt, fair compensation payment||Negligible||During construction & operation|
|During the entire project||Loss of structures||Certain parts of line route||Prompt, fair compensation payment for resettlement||Removal from historical/ancestral roots||Monitoring during construction & operation to ensure all RAPs are adequately and fairly catered for|
|During the entire project||Loss of land||Entire RoW & access tracks||Prompt, fair compensation payment||Removal from historical/ancestral roots||Monitoring during construction & operation to ensure all PAPs are adequately and fairly catered for|
|Construction||Noise impacts||Communities and settlements close to RoW||Avoidance (as much as possible) of work at night||Minor disturbance during daytime||Ambient noise levels shall be measured once every week in communities close to RoW|
|Construction||Air quality||Communities and settlements close to RoW||Spray the exposed soil surfaces of the tower corridor track as and when needed||Negligible||Monitoring – none|
|Construction||Potential soil erosion||Entire RoW & access tracks||Limit land clearance to minimum area required and early revegetation||Negligible||Monitor land clearance|
|Construction & operation||
1. Open excavations
2. Potential electrocution
3. Potential collapse of towers
|Entire RoW & access tracks||Tower base excavations in or near settlements or farms will be clearly marked and made inaccessible to the public. All towers will be clearly marked with a red inscription on white background - “DANGER – 225,000 Volts” to warn off trespassers, etc.||Negligible||Routine inspections of towers during operational phase|
|Construction & operation||Flora and Fauna||Entire RoW & access tracks||Limit clearance of vegetation||Negligible||Monitored carefully to ensure that the minimum area requirements are not exceeded|
|Construction & operation||Occupational safety and health||Entire RoW & access tracks||
Provision of personal protective equipment at construction.
All work to be done according to Safety Rules and Regulations of SPC as well as the World Bank Group EHS Guidelines of 2007 (General and Electric transmission and Distribution), NPA Safety Rules (Electrical and Me chanical)
|Negligible||Availability and use of protective equipment|
|Construction||Impacts on cultural and historical/archaeological sites/items||Cultural/historical/archaeological chance finds||Chance finds to be reported to appropriate authorities as a part of the contractor’s contract||Negligible||Areas of chance finds will be monitored and secured in order to be handed over to Museums and Monuments Board.|
|Mainly settlements along RoW||
Education of workers to avoid casual sex
Supply sufficient quantities of good quality free condoms to workers
|Potential single mothers, transmission of STDs/AIDS||Keep close contact with communities during construction to detect incidences of STDs/AIDS|
|Construction||Traffic impacts||Relevant roads indicated in report||
Use of traffic wardens to control traffic at road crossings
Development of Traffic Control Plan
Presence of traffic wardens at all times during construction.
Review the contractor’s Traffic Control Plan
|Construction||Water pollution||Rivers indicated in the report||Minimize erosion and manage excavated materials, wastewater from excavations and accidental spillage of oil, fuel and paints||Negligible||
Streams close to the site(s) of construction to be sampled and analyzed weekly.
During the maintenance phase monitoring will be carried out twice yearly.
|Construction||Work camp management||Work camp sites||
Establish far away from water bodies and settlements
Provision of mobile toilet, clinic, doctor and ambulance at work camp sites
Distance from each work camp site to nearest water body and settlement.
Availability of mobile toilet, clinic, doctor and ambulance;
|Construction & operation||Solid Waste generation||Entire RoW & access tracks||
Trees, tree stumps and wooden containers not to be given out to the local communities as fuel wood .
Usable trees and wood from the RoW clearing should be given out to the local communities.
Metal wastes to be collected and disposed of appropriately and/or recycled in consultation with relevant government agencies
|Negligible||Collection and disposal of solid waste to be monitored|
|Operation||Effects of rust treatment and painting of towers||Tower locations||Spilt paint to be quickly mopped up with rags and/or sawdust. The used sawdust and rags will be disposed of at appropriate public waste dumping sites.||Negligible||No monitoring|
|Operation||Micro shock from a spark discharge||RoW||Minimized by multiple earthlings||Negligible||Monitor earthing cables|
|Operation||Fire hazards||RoW||Public education on hazards of bush burning||Negligible||Routine patrols to discourage bush burning|
|Construction & operation||Employment generation and incomes||Settlements along RoW||Encourage contractors to engage local labour||Standard of living improved||None|
COUNTLESS BENEFITS OF THE CLSG PROJECT
“In recognition of the benefits that this project will bring to the CLSG countries, it was singled out by the G20 as a priority project at the 2011 Cannes meetings.”
Regional Integration of electricity networks
It provides the power utilities of the region with a vehicle to achieve the vision embodied in the ECOWAS Energy Protocol –that of creating a “level playing field” to facilitate the balanced development of diverse energy resources of the ECOWAS Member States for their collective economic benefit, through long-term energy sector cooperation, unimpeded energy transit and increasing cross-border electricity trade.
Reducing the greenhouse gas emissions
The interconnection results in reduced use of hydrocarbon fuels in the four countries and helps avoid more than 5.6 million tons of carbon over the lifetime of the project in comparison to the “without” project scenario. Assuming a damage cost value of US$20 per ton, overall gains from avoided carbon emissions can be valued at US$62.5 million in net present value (NPV) terms.
Economic Recovery and Poverty Reduction
The project will contribute to economic recovery and poverty reduction through improved access to essential power supplies in the CLSG area. This will be accomplished through the re-construction of essential infrastructure and strengthening of institutional capabilities to plan, procure, operate, maintain and sustainably manage these services. It will provide support for targeted critical investments with the aim of developing the most economic power resources in the CLSG area and making services available from a regional power system that overcomes the structural inefficiencies presented by the small sizes of the individual economies.
Improving the Financial Performance
The CLSG project will improve the financial performance of at least some of the national utilities significantly, as the energy imported would displace more expensive generation sources. In turn, the combined regional and domestic impacts will support the transition to normally functioning power utilities in these countries with lower cost, more sustainable generation and more effective means to control and optimize system expansion and operations.
Developing Alternative Power Supply Model
Grid connection of mining sites would allow a number of alternative power supply models to be developed. The CLSG countries are endowed with vast areas of world class iron ore deposits that once developed could represent a major demand on the CLSG line. Indeed the CLSG line goes closely past the most significant mining areas and the potential amount traded by the mining companies is high. If mining demand were interconnected to the grid, different supply arrangements could be developed that would allow the energy supply surplus from mining to be sold to the grid (either bilateral or to the utilities) or allow the development of large supply generation plan to meet the mining demand while using the CLSG line.